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Data ElementsAbout TBC
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These are Data Elements on the site that are not related to players statistics. They are generally column headers and are organized below grouped by context. If statistical, then it will be related to teams or other on-player elements.

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Jump to:   Players -- Draft -- Teams -- Stat Records -- Standings -- Play by Play -- Talent Ratings

Players

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Element/Attribute Description
Age Age is calculated as a player's age as of the halfway point of the season (June 30th). The idea being that the age will reflect the age he was for more than 50% of the season.
Awards Lists the # of awards won by this player. The number will be based only on the available Awards in our database. Certainly, each player on the site has won dozens of awards throughout their amateur career.
Born Date Date of birth for player. In absence of an available date of birth, we will try to estimate the year of birth , usually based on college stats or draft information.
College(s) Unlike High Schools, more than 1 school may be listed. It is not uncommon for a player to have played baseball for 4 universities. Though we like to only include schools where the athlete was active as a ball-player. The exception would be football players (or other athletes) drafted by an MLB team where we will include their college football school. The reason we don't include the schools attended for purely academic reasons is because a lot of players go back to school after their career and it does not seem relevant to their baseball career.
Current Status For more recent players (since 2012), TBC tracks all player roster movement by day and for the most part we are up-to-date on Pro players. A player's status will appear on his player page and next to his name on many other pages on the site. There are many statuses:
MLB Active, Minors, Free Agent, On Disabled List, Bereavement List, Paternit Leave List, Retired, Designated for Assignement and restricted. A player's current team will also be included next to his status as well. Though the team might be expressed as an MLB organization with the level in (). PHI (AAA) would mean that the player is currently playing AAA for the Phillies and if you click on the team, you will be redirected to the AAA team roster containing the player.
Death Date (Age) The captured date of death of the player. More on Deaths.
Drafted Contains ALL instances of draft records for a player including the year, team, round, overall, phase and whether they signed with the drafting team. A player can only have signed once. A player may also have several draft instances where they did not sign.
Ht Height. Generally stays static throughout a career though gets more "official" as the player moves up the levels. College freshmen may actually grow more. But important to note that I won't go looking for changes but will respond to someone sending an update.
High Level (HiLvl) Highest Level Reached for a player. Sometimes abbreviated to HiLvl. The levels are MLB, AAA, AA, A+ (hi A), A (Lo A), A- (Short-Season A), Rk (rookie) Ind (Independent) NCAA (College)
High School Only one high school may be listed per player and if more than one choice, the graduating high school will be selected. You will notice high schools are linked only for North American Schools. There are cases where we list international high schools but we don't keep separate pages for these schools.
Level (Lvl) TBC has organized baseball into levels that start from Major League Baseball (MLB), to the Minors, Indy Ball and then College.
MLB Debut The date a player played in their first Major League game, if exists. The player must have appeared in the game and not just been added to the active roster.
MLB Years Range of years as a Major Leaguer. Not necessarily inclusive. For example, if a player played only in 1986 and 1992, his range of years will be expressed as 1985-1992.
MLBAM ID Major League Baseball Advanced Media ID. MLB's sister company gives an ID to each pro player and it stays with them throughout their career. You can click the ID# to jump to their MLB page. We try to keep up to date with this ID# but may be out of sync sometimes.
Organizations For pro players, will list all MLB organizations for whom they played at least 1 game with the distinct number of seasons in []. Will be sorted from highest to lowest # of seasons.
Place Place of birth. Always controversial since its always difficulty to know the truth without investigation. The listed place for Pro players will generally be the agreed-upon public birth location according to media guides and baseball cards. For College Players, it is often the residence or hometown listed in absence of a listed birth city. In general, the goal of this attribute is to give you an idea of where the player comes from. The birth city is often less relevant than the hometown since the birth city could have had no impact on a player's formative years.
Player Listed Under Based on the highest level reached by the player. All players are listed in one Players section on the site so the search engines can find them.
Player Name The player name displayed is based on the first and last name generally used by the player. A linked player name means he has a profile on our site. If he is unlinked, he does not have a profile because he does not meet the criteria from the site's Inclusion Rules. A player's name may also be displayed as his real name.
Positions There are a few different ways that positions are displayed in grids throughout the site.
  • Current Position or Career Position
  • Position for a specific Year
  • Position when drafted
  • Prospect Rankings For each prospect ranking source, pre-season rankings for MLB (usually top 100) and organization (top 10 or top 30). The rankings are listed in aggregate for each player within this player bio section.
    Real Name May also be called Proper Name or Full Name. This is a player's full given name without first name being shortened and includes middle name and any alternate last names.
    Relations Relatives amid the baseball world. Also may include famous relatives outside of baseball.
    Retrosheet ID We use Retrosheet ID for our boxscore data. This ID is only available for Major Leaguers. Clicking the ID to jump to the Retrosheet site.
    Service Time Service Time is explained in full on the topics page. Basically the number of days a player has been an MLB roster and is used to determine a player's free agent and arbitration status.
    Signing Bonuses More on Signing Bonuses. The $bonus given to the player to encourage him to sign with the drafting team.
    Signing Scouts The amateur scouts (up to 3) credited with scouting and signing this player.
    Stat Years The range of years of statistics available in the TBC database. Much more accurate for recent seasons. Keep in minor stats are available only since 1977 so older Major Leaguers will have Stat Years matching MLB Years.
    TBC Player ID The Baseball Cube's ID# for a player. More relevant to me than you.
    Wt Weight. Obviously not going to be completely accurate all the time since players often increase their playing weight as they get older. The weight entered is mostly based on how the player was originally entered into our system and I will respond to requests to change a player's listed weight.

    Draft Elements

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    Element/Attribute Description
    Draft Instances Listed as Dx (D1,D2,D3) in the Draft Research application, the instance of a draft pick is the nth time the player has been drafted. Remember that a player has to be signed by the drafting team. If he has not signed, he is still eligible for future drafts. It is common for a player to be drafted multiple times. It is also common in earlier years for a player to be drafted in multiple phases in the same year. In all cases, only one of these instances have the player signing with the drafting team.
    Year Draft Year references the year of the draft, regardless of phase, or the year of the UDFA signing. (UDFA = Undrafted Free Agent)
    Round Drafts are organized into rounds with, in general, each team getting 1 pick per round in a pre-determined sequence. Though baseball does not allow trading of picks, there is the possibliity of teams having multiple picks in a round by virtue of sandwich picks. These are inserted picks that are compensation for free agent signings. Many data sources will have the rounds denoted as 1.a or 1.5 or something else. TBC does not distinguish between actual picks in the round and sandwich picks. All picks after the 1st round will appear as 1st round picks.
    Overall A unique number per draft indicating the sequence # of the draft pick. In earlier years, there were multiple phases of the draft and each phase has their own distinct list of picks. Important to note that a 1st overall pick in an August or January phase does not hold the same prestige as the 1st overall pick in the June Regular Draft.
    Phase Though there is currently only 1 phase of the MLB draft, prior to 1987, there were multiple phases for various reasons. TBC has all these phases.
    Drafting Team The team drafting the player whether he signed or not.
    Signed Yes/No. Whether or not the player signed with the drafting team. If a player did not sign, he will be likely eligible for future drafts provided he has not exhausted his eligiblity.
    Source Indicates from which school the player was drafted. The school could be a High School in which case the player would be a Senior. If College, then a player may be drafted out of Junior College for any season and from a 4-year school if he is a Junior classmen or if he is at least 21 years old at the time of the draft. Some players may be drafted as free agents, meaning they weren't attending school that season.
    Drafted Position The defensive position listed next to a player when drafted. This attribute will often be different than his listed position in his career. Some pitchers become hitters and vice versa. Many players will change positions when they enter the minors or as they evolve through the early part of their career due to organizational needs or a player profiles better at the new position.
    Class For more recent seasons, player class is included. The class refers to whether the players was a Freshman (Fr), Sophomore (So), Junior (Jr) or Senior (sr). Players have 4 years of eligibility for college baseball. Redshirt-seasons might delay an increment of a class and so sometimes you will see So-Rs or Jr-Rs. This would indicate that the player had a redshirt season due to injury or other reason and though listed as a Junior, it might actually be their 4th year in college. Some players are drafted as 5th year players. These players are listed as 5S. (5th Year Senior)
    Region The state or province (or Country for UDFA signings) from where a player was drafted/signed. Is not necessarily relevant to where the player grew up or where he was born.
    Signing Bonus When a player is signed by their drafting team, they come to an agreement on a signing bonus. The higher the pick, the higher the bonus. The more leverage a player has, the more chance he will command a higher bonus as well. High School picks can threaten to go to college. Juniors can return for their Senior years if they are not happy with the bonus offer. Teams have a salary cap for the first 10 rounds of the draft that is higher for teams who finished lower in the standings. MLB also provides slot values for each overall pick# for teams to use as a guide. Many times the signing will match the slot value and many times it will not.
    Signing Scouts The amateur scout(s) credited with the signing of the player. These are usually the regional scouts watching the player throughout his amateur career and submitting reports to management. Though crosscheckers and other scouts might corraborate the regional scout's assessment, the regional scout will mostly always be given credit for the signing. TBC allows up to 3 scouts for a particular draft instance. Scouts will only appear for signed players. Unsigned players, even though there will be a scout who recommended the player, will not be listed since the player didn't eventually sign with this team. Hence, the term Signing Scout.

    Team Elements

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    Element/Attribute Description
    League Simple enough. The name of the league for the team.
    Division Leagues are often broken up into groups called divisions. Mostly based on geography with an unbalanced schedule leaning towards divisional games. Note that not all teams have divisions.
    Level Leagues/Teams on the site are divided into different levels. MLB is its own level while the Minor Leagues are divided into 6 separate levels, organized in a hierarchy ranging from the highest, AAA, to the lowest, Rookie. College has levels as well ranging from NCAA Division I, III, III, NAIA and then Junior Colleges.
    Category One final level that we use to categorize leagues/teams is the category which will group all the minor levels into a Minor Leagues category and all college levels into a simple College Baseball category.
    Location Indicates the home city of the team, based on the location of the stadium and irrelevant to the name of the team. The Texas Rangers play in Arlington. The Tampa Rays play in St. Petersburg.
    Record (rank) This is the team's win-loss record for the season. If a league had 2 halves, the record is combined. For college teams, the record is divided into Conference vs Overall. Ranks are based on conference since a team's overall schedule is not balanced whereas the conference schedule is fair. Ranks are always based on the division. MLB will include 3 ranks. Divisional ranks, league ranks (AL vs NL) and league ranks (MLB).
    Manager/Head Coach Manager for PRO teams. Head Coach for college. He's the bench boss. Makes the lineups,strategy, manages the players in and out of the game. Motivates. Organizes. Yells. There could be multiple managers during a season due to firing. A firing is most likely at the MLB level.
    General Manager The person in charge of managing the roster and player personnel throughout the organization. Though he makes trades, signs players and mandates organizational standards, its very possible that a lot of the guidance comes from the president of baseball operations or even the owner or board of directors. Each situation is different. GM is only valid for MLB. The GM for minor league teams is more of a business operations General Manager.
    Coaches Where available, teams have coaches listed. Skews towards more recent seasons but is fairly comprehensive. The list of coaches are on-field coaches excluding Bullpen Catchers. For MLB, this would include Bench Coach, hitting, pitching, first base, thirdbase, bullpen and assistants. For the minors, generally we have Pitching and Hitting coaches. Some teams may employ more paid coaches and they are included wherever possible. College teams generally have 2-3 paid assistants. Volunteer coaches are excluded. As are graduate assistants.
    Playoffs Displays, in brief, how far a team advanced in their playoffs. MLB will include in () the name of team to whom they lost or if they won the World Series, the team they beat. Minor leagues will include the round the team lost. E.g. Lost in Semi-Finals or Lost in 1st Round. College Playoffs indicate only the Conference Champions and finalists. Most conferences have a year end tournament with many teams involved. The College playoffs data element will also include whether a team participated in the College World Series and how far they advanced. Finally, they will also include a #x in nation if they were top 25. A college playoffs notation could be ... Conference Champions, Lost in Regionals, #22 in nation.
    Top Draft Pick The FIRST draft pick by a team from the June Regular Draft, regardless of the round.
    Affiliates Each MLB organization has a Major League team known as the parent team. Within each organization. there are about 6-7 minor league teams that are afilliated with the MLB parent team. Meaning, the team has a working agreement with the org to fill their roster with organizational players for the purpose of player development. The teams are indepedently owned and operated and teams will often shuffle their minor league affiliates. This means that their Player Development Contract with that team may not be renewed and they will switch their team to another city. Their players will follow. The teams operate under the umbrella of Minor League Baseball (MILB). A few minor league teams are owned by the MLB organization and thus are not subject to the Development Contracts.
    Years Available This is the range of years for which we have statistics available. For MLB, it will be the full range of years for a franchise. For MILB and College, its the range of years in our database. Note that MLB sees a team as a franchise and that a franchise can relocate or change names over the course of time. For example, the San Francisco Giants and New York Giants are considered the same franchise. Washington Nationals and Montreal Expos. Miami Marlins and Florida Marlins. The Minor Leagues have a new team entity created every time there is a new city name for a league. If a team relocates, there is no link between old city and new city. If a minor league team changes nicknames, a new team number is NOT created. Same for when a College changes its name.
    Nickname All teams have a city name (or school name) and a nickname. Who knows why the city name isn't good enough but it isn't. Nicknames can change over time. A nickname change does not warrant a change in Team ID.

    Stat Records

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    Element/Attribute Description
    Age Player Age for that season. Though an age can change mid-season, the age is determined by the player's predominant age for that year. His age on June 30th is considered the halfway point. This applies to college players as well even though their season is finished before June.
    League The abbreviation (full name available on hover) of the league or conference for this team. Excluded division. Some older college teams may just have "College" listed since it might be outside of the site's Inclusion Rules
    Level The level associated with this team. Could be simply MLB or the specific minor league level (AAA, AA etc). For College, it will be the College Baseball classification (NCAA Div I, NAIA, Jr College)
    Org The MLB parent organization for the stat record. Applies only to affiliated pro teams. Essentially, the only value is for minor league teams. MLB teams will have the Org listed but it will match the MLB team name. Minor League teams will tell you what organization this team belongs to because it is not necessarily possible to determine from the team name.
    Pos The predominant position played for the selected season based on games played from fielding stats. College players will always show the player's default position. In general, position can be classified 3 ways. Drafted Position, season position and overall position.
    Uniform Number Mostly listed as 1 number if listed at all. The number a player wore on his uniform for that season. Sometimes a player will change number mid-season and we will capture that as well but not always.

    Standings

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    Element/Attribute Description
    Ranks Ranks are generally displayed for divisional rank, however for MLB, ranks are captured on a daily basis for 3 different contexts. Divisional, League (AL or NL) and MLB rank. Minors and College initial rank will be for divisional but on some pages, we also display the league rank.
    G Games Played. The number of games played for a team. Not always equal for all teams in a league since games get rained out or there may be tie-breaker games that add an extra game. College teams may have 2 different contexts for games played on some pages. Conference games vs Overall games. College tracks games separately because not all teams in a league will have the same calibre of non-conference games so to use them for ranking within a conference would not be useful.
    W Wins. Number of games where the team scored more than their opponents. In general, unless otherwise noted for College, the wins and losses are for conference games.
    L Losses. Number of games where the team scored less than their opponent.
    T Ties. Non-existent in Professional. They exist in college but are rare.
    WPct Winning Percentage is a simple formula that divides the number of wins into games played to come up with a batting average-like metric that says how many games a team would win out of 1000 games. Though the value is expressed as a value below 1, it is expressed as a whole number. A team at 500 is a team with equal wins and losses.
    GBL Games Behind Leaders. Gives an indication how far back a team is in the standings. The number is expressed a whole number or with a half. A team that is 3 games back of the leader needs to win 3 more games than the team they are chasing to catch up to them. Expressed as 3.5 would mean that they would have to win 4 to catch them while 3 would not be enough.
    Formula: (LeaderWins-TrailingWins)+(TrailingLoss-LeaderLoss))/2 expressed as a positive but with implications of a negative. Meaning the team is 3 games behind.
    RF Runs For. Team runs for the season based on the sum of all runs scored for its player. This stat is subject to errors in the player statistics but will generally be very close to the actual number if not exact.
    RA Runs Against. Team runs against for the season based on the sum of all runs allowed by its pitchers. This stat is subject to errors in the player statistics but will generally be very close to the actual number if not exact.
    DIFF Difference. Or Plus-Minus. A team's difference of Runs For and Runs Against. A good indicator of the quality of a team provided they are compared against teams with a similar schedule. A team with a + differential and a 500 record might be considered as an underachieving team. The differential is a metric of course and a team's ability to squeak out close-game wins should not be overlooked.
    Home A team's win-loss record at home. Available only for MLB.
    Away A team's win-loss record away from home, on the road. Available only for MLB.
    Strk Streak. Current winning or losing streak for an MLB team.
    Rest of Season On pages with historical standings for a particular day in history, since we know what happens for the rest of that season, there is a section at the far right of the standings where you can see a team's win-loss record for the rest of the season.

    Play by Play (Boxscores)

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    Element/Attribute Description
    Balls The number of Balls on the batter when the plate appearance was resolved. A walk will be listed with 3 balls since the 4th ball is captured in the event being listed as a walk.
    BBT (Batted Ball Type) Type of batted ball. G = Grounder. L = Line drive. P = Popup. F = Fly ball. Only for fair balls considered to be in play.
    Day/Night Usually from the batter perspective, whether the selected game was in the day or at night, based on the start time.
    End Game A flag used to determine if the plate appearance was the final plate appearance of the game. That is, the game was over the split second after the play was complete. This flag is used to determine walk-off events.
    Event Result The descriptive result of the at bat with location of batted ball. Sometimes expressed unparsed, as Retrosheet displays it in their raw data which will include baserunner advancement.
    Home/Away Usually from the batter perspective, whether he was home or away during this game.
    Inning The inning of the event expressed as a whole number. Does not indicate top or bottom of inning.
    Leadoff A flag for whether a batter was the first batter for his team in the inning. If the first inning, then the batter was leadoff for his team in the game. If visiting team, he led off the game.
    Lineup Lineup slot for batter (1-9) at the time of his at bat though it will remain constant throughout the game.
    Location Location of the hit displayed as a position representing the first fielding to touch the ball.
    Outs The number of outs the split second before the at bat was resolved. An at bat may start with a different number of outs than when it ends if a baserunner is thrown out.
    Outs on Play (OOP) The number of outs occuring on the play.
    Pitches The sequence of pitches and events during a plate appearance. From Retrosheet:
    +  following pickoff throw by the catcher
    *  indicates the following pitch was blocked by the catcher
    .  marker for play not involving the batter
    1  pickoff throw to first
    2  pickoff throw to second
    3  pickoff throw to third
    >  Indicates a runner going on the pitch
    
    B  ball
    C  called strike
    F  foul
    H  hit batter
    I  intentional ball
    K  strike (unknown type)
    L  foul bunt
    M  missed bunt attempt
    N  no pitch (on balks and interference calls)
    O  foul tip on bunt
    P  pitchout
    Q  swinging on pitchout
    R  foul ball on pitchout
    S  swinging strike
    T  foul tip
    U  unknown or missed pitch
    V  called ball because pitcher went to his mouth
    X  ball put into play by batter
    Y  ball put into play on pitchout
        
    Position Position at the time of the at bat, sometimes expressed as a position number but mostly expressed in text.
    RBIs Runs Batted In credited to the batter on the play
    Result of Game Final score of the game
    Runners (Run,Ru) Baserunners at the beginning of the at bat. Expressed with 3 characters. Each character representing a base. If no baserunner on the base, a "-" will be displayed. Otherwise, the number of the base. 123 = Bases Loaded. 1-3 means 1st and 3rd. --- is bases empty.
    Score The score the split-second before the plate appearance occured. The score after the event is reflected in the next batter's state.
    Strikes The number of Strikes on the batter when the plate appearance was resolved. A strikeout will appear with 2 strikes since the 3rd strike resulted in the event listed as strikeout
    Weekday The day of the week the game occured

    Talent Ratings

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    Talent Ratings are statistically-generated ratings for batters and pitchers based on yearly comparisons against their peers. The ratings are not based on a pre-determined benchmark such as the scouting ratings used by scouts. This is not based on actually seeing a player's physical skills. These ratings are based exclusively on statistical history and can be used to help predict a player's fantasy usefulness and possible career projection.

    A player is ranked compared to peers in each league type for each season he has played predicated on a minimum number of at-bats or innings pitched. Ranked players are assigned a number ranging from 100 to 1 with equal distribution to each score. The worst player receives 1 while the best receives 100. Depending on the number of players eligible, there could be more than 1 or more 100 assigned. For a player's career (including the college data we have), the rankings for each rating is averaged providing a final score. Since all scores are averages, there is not equal distribution between ratings.

    Active player scouting scores are also weighted towards recent seasons. Therefore, a player's success in the current season will be weighted higher than 2 years ago and 3 years ago. All years starting 5 years ago are not weighted. The purpose of the weighting is fairly obvious. A player's recent statistics are more indication of his skills than earlier seasons. Inactive or retired players do not have weighted ratings since they would serve no functional purpose. Its also important to note that there is no greater weight assigned to major league stats. A player who only played college ball might have a rating of 100 in power whereas Ryan Howard has a rating of 96. It does not mean we think this player has greater power than Ryan Howard. These ratings are only Indicators and are compared only against his cohorts. College stats are compared against college stats, minors against minors. etc

    The following list indicates the factors included in each scouting category:


    HITTING Talent Ratings
    Speed:  Number of stolen bases per trips to first base. Does not consider whether there are other runners on base blocking his path.
    Power:  Extra Base hits compared to balls put in play (AB-SO). Considers home runs at a full point and doubles and triples at half the weight.
    Contact:  Number of times a player does not strikeout compared to plate appearances.
    RBIs:  Number of Runs Batted in compared to number of plate appearances. Is not normalized per opportunity.
    Runs:  Number of runs scored per time on base. Does not consider quality of players behind him in batting order but instead may highlight a player's propensity to score runs.
    Hitting:  Batting Average versus the league.

    PITCHING Talent Ratings
    Strikeouts:  Strikeouts per 9 Innings vs the rest of the league.
    Walks:  Walks per 9 innings vs the rest of the league.
    Hittable:  Hits per 9 innings vs the rest of the league.
    vs Power:  Homers allowed per 9 innings vs the rest of the league.
    K/BB Ratio:  Strikeout to Walk ratio vs the rest of the league.
    Pitcher Hitting:  OPS (on-base + slugging) compared to the rest of the qualified pitchers in comparison. Excludes pitcher with insufficient at bats.

    GENERAL Talent Ratings
    Durability:  Number of games a player has played compared to the numbers of games his team played. For pitchers, uses a formula that compares number of games pitched versus number of expected games pitched if pitched for a full season with this team. Bench players may not appear to be durable.
    Team Success:  Gives a rating of 100 for first place team (Winning percentage) and a rating of 0 for last place team. Ratings are distributed evenly between 0-100 depending on the number of teams in the league.