The Baseball Cube

TBC

1989 Harrisburg Senators

1989 Harrisburg Senators

Eastern League (AA)

MORE  
franchise name
category
league name
Eastern League
division
--
level
AA
year
nickname
Senators
record
67-72 (.482)
GBL
24.5
rank
5
lg rk
4
ballpark
Riverside Stadium
attendance
att rk
2
year range
1987-2020
Batting Statistics
CSV*Reload page to restore grid
Grid Actions:
PREMIUM subscribers get additional grid functionality
Tips/tools for using data grids:

  • Manual Filter: Single-click a row to highlight in orange. Click FILTER ROWS button to show only those rows in the grid
  • Quick-Filter: Double-Click on a cell value to filter the grid on rows that have same value in same column. Click a statistic to view all values equal or higher
  • Select Rows: Single-click rows to select multiple rows for future action or visibility.
  • Hide Rows: Click the minus sign in the first column to hide the row in the grid.
  • Restore Rows: Once rows are filtered, click RESTORE ROWS to show all rows once again
  • Sort: Click a column in the first header row to sort data by values in that column. Click again to reverse the original sort. Some cells have custom sort keys that will sort them logically instead of alphanumerically.
  • Compare/Analyze: Click multiple rows for players of interest. In addition to filtering, you can quickly COMPARE player stats or use the MULTI-PLAYER STAT VIEWER to view multiple player cards on the same page.
  • Leaders: On stat grids. Top-10 ranked statistics are highlighted in gray. #1 rank is in light green. (PREMIUM setting)
  • Export to CSV: Click CSV to convert the full grid into a comma-delimeted display. From there, you can copy/paste to another application.
  # player name age ba pos   g ab   r   h 2b 3b hr rbi sb cs bb so hp sh sf iw dp tb pa xb 1b avg obp slg ops seca iso babip bb% so% so/bb ab/hr hilvl mlb years stat years
-- Wes Chamberlain 23 R of 129 471 65 144 26 3 21 87 11 10 32 82 2 0 7 4 0 239 512 50 94 .306 .348 .507 .855 .272 .202 .328 6.25 16.02 2.56 22.43 MLB 1990-1995 1987-2004
-- Tommy Shields 24 L 3b 123 417 66 120 13 4 5 47 17 5 25 62 9 2 3 3 0 156 456 22 98 .288 .339 .374 .713 .175 .086 .326 5.48 13.60 2.48 83.40 MLB 1993-1993 1983-1994
-- Kevin Burdick 25 R 2b 96 369 40 105 16 1 7 34 5 3 23 23 2 5 1 2 0 144 400 24 81 .285 .329 .390 .719 .173 .106 .288 5.75 5.75 1.00 52.71 AAA -- 1986-1991
-- Orlando Merced 22 L 1b 95 341 43 82 16 4 6 48 13 3 32 65 2 1 4 6 0 124 380 26 56 .240 .306 .364 .670 .246 .123 .277 8.42 17.11 2.03 56.83 MLB 1990-2003 1986-2003
-- Ed Yacopino 23 B of 94 337 35 89 19 2 7 33 9 4 19 50 4 1 4 2 0 133 365 28 61 .264 .308 .395 .702 .202 .131 .289 5.21 13.70 2.63 48.14 AAA -- 1986-1993
-- Jeff Banister 24 R c 102 336 48 80 13 0 12 48 2 1 30 57 4 1 2 0 0 129 373 25 55 .238 .306 .384 .690 .238 .146 .253 8.04 15.28 1.90 28.00 MLB 1991-1991 1986-1993
-- Julio Peguero 20 B of 76 284 34 70 14 1 2 21 14 12 29 39 2 1 0 0 0 92 316 17 53 .246 .321 .324 .645 .187 .077 .280 9.18 12.34 1.34 142.00 MLB 1992-1992 1987-2000
-- Tony Chance 24 R of 71 260 35 68 16 4 8 46 11 3 14 69 5 0 2 0 0 116 281 28 40 .262 .310 .446 .756 .269 .185 .324 4.98 24.56 4.93 32.50 AAA -- 1983-2002
-- Pedro Perez 23 R 3b-2b 83 246 34 60 8 0 3 18 8 8 19 40 6 1 0 0 0 77 272 11 49 .244 .314 .313 .627 .146 .069 .281 6.99 14.71 2.11 82.00 AA -- 1985-1990
-- Rico Rossy 25 R ss 78 238 20 60 16 1 2 25 2 4 27 19 3 0 2 0 0 84 270 19 41 .252 .333 .353 .686 .206 .101 .265 10.00 7.04 0.70 119.00 MLB 1991-1998 1983-1999
-- Ed Hartman 24 R 1b 68 214 27 56 10 2 6 33 2 1 15 39 3 1 1 0 0 88 234 18 38 .262 .318 .411 .729 .224 .150 .294 6.41 16.67 2.60 35.67 AA -- 1986-1989
-- Moises Alou 22 R of 54 205 36 60 5 2 3 19 8 4 17 38 0 0 2 1 0 78 224 10 50 .293 .344 .380 .724 .190 .088 .343 7.59 16.96 2.24 68.33 MLB 1990-2008 1986-2008
-- Carlos Garcia 21 R ss 54 188 28 53 5 5 3 25 6 4 8 36 0 0 1 0 0 77 197 13 40 .282 .310 .410 .719 .181 .128 .333 4.06 18.27 4.50 62.67 MLB 1990-1999 1987-2001
-- Tim McKinley 24 R c 57 135 11 22 3 0 0 10 0 0 19 26 0 2 0 0 0 25 156 3 19 .163 .266 .185 .451 .163 .022 .202 12.18 16.67 1.37 -- AA -- 1987-1990
-- Tony Longmire 20 L of 37 127 15 37 7 0 3 22 1 0 12 21 1 1 0 0 0 53 141 10 27 .291 .357 .417 .774 .228 .126 .330 8.51 14.89 1.75 42.33 MLB 1993-1995 1986-1999
-- Terry Crowley 21 B 2b 30 101 9 25 1 1 0 9 2 0 5 11 1 2 1 0 0 28 110 2 23 .248 .287 .277 .564 .099 .030 .275 4.55 10.00 2.20 -- AA -- 1986-1992
-- Bernardo Tatis 27 B of 19 70 12 20 5 1 1 6 7 1 7 17 0 0 0 0 0 30 77 7 13 .286 .351 .429 .779 .329 .143 .365 9.09 22.08 2.43 70.00 AAA -- 1981-1991
-- Jeff Cook 23 B of 18 63 11 18 1 1 0 3 7 0 9 11 0 1 0 0 0 21 73 2 16 .286 .375 .333 .708 .302 .048 .346 12.33 15.07 1.22 -- AAA -- 1985-1998
-- Jeff Osborne 22 L 1b 19 59 9 16 1 0 1 4 0 0 8 13 0 0 1 0 0 20 68 2 14 .271 .353 .339 .692 .203 .068 .326 11.76 19.12 1.63 59.00 AA -- 1986-1990
-- Junior Vizcaino 24 R 1b 17 57 5 9 1 1 0 6 0 0 4 21 0 0 1 0 0 12 62 2 7 .158 .210 .211 .420 .123 .053 .243 6.45 33.87 5.25 -- AA -- 1987-1990
-- Andy Hall 24 R c 7 18 4 3 1 0 1 2 0 0 2 4 0 0 1 0 0 7 21 2 1 .167 .238 .389 .627 .333 .222 .143 9.52 19.05 2.00 18.00 AAA -- 1983-1991
-- Tim Conroy 29 L p 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 0.00 0.00 -- -- MLB 1978-1987 1978-1989
-- Totals (22 players) 23.4 -- -- 1331 4538 587 1197 197 33 91 546 125 63 356 743 44 19 33 18 0 1733 4990 321 876 .264 .321 .382 .703 .210 .118 .296 7.13 14.89 2.09 49.87 MLB 1990-2003 1986-2003
Pitching Statistics
CSV*Reload page to restore grid
Grid Actions:
PREMIUM subscribers get additional grid functionality
Tips/tools for using data grids:

  • Manual Filter: Single-click a row to highlight in orange. Click FILTER ROWS button to show only those rows in the grid
  • Quick-Filter: Double-Click on a cell value to filter the grid on rows that have same value in same column. Click a statistic to view all values equal or higher
  • Select Rows: Single-click rows to select multiple rows for future action or visibility.
  • Hide Rows: Click the minus sign in the first column to hide the row in the grid.
  • Restore Rows: Once rows are filtered, click RESTORE ROWS to show all rows once again
  • Sort: Click a column in the first header row to sort data by values in that column. Click again to reverse the original sort. Some cells have custom sort keys that will sort them logically instead of alphanumerically.
  • Compare/Analyze: Click multiple rows for players of interest. In addition to filtering, you can quickly COMPARE player stats or use the MULTI-PLAYER STAT VIEWER to view multiple player cards on the same page.
  • Leaders: On stat grids. Top-10 ranked statistics are highlighted in gray. #1 rank is in light green. (PREMIUM setting)
  • Export to CSV: Click CSV to convert the full grid into a comma-delimeted display. From there, you can copy/paste to another application.
  # player name age th role   w   l   g gs cg sh gr gf sv ip   h   r er hr bb so wp bk hb era whip h9 hr9 bb9 so9 ra9 so/bb hilvl mlb years stat years
-- Peter Murphy 24 R Rel/St 5 6 26 7 1 0 19 7 2 84.0 87 37 22 2 21 54 6 0 5 2.36 1.29 9.32 0.21 2.25 5.79 3.96 2.57 AA -- 1986-1991
-- Jim Tracy 23 R Reliever 2 4 44 0 0 0 44 29 8 71.0 63 37 27 5 21 52 3 0 1 3.42 1.18 7.99 0.63 2.66 6.59 4.69 2.48 AAA -- 1985-1993
-- Larry Melton 26 R Rel/St 4 7 23 9 0 0 14 6 0 70.1 75 42 31 10 27 52 5 0 6 3.97 1.45 9.60 1.28 3.45 6.65 5.37 1.93 AAA -- 1985-1989
-- Scott Ruskin 26 L Starter 2 3 12 10 2 0 2 0 0 63.0 64 38 34 5 32 56 2 0 1 4.86 1.52 9.14 0.71 4.57 8.00 5.43 1.75 MLB 1990-1993 1982-1993
-- Rob Russell 24 L Reliever 3 6 44 0 0 0 44 26 5 59.2 64 31 28 2 17 52 0 0 4 4.22 1.36 9.65 0.30 2.56 7.84 4.68 3.06 AA -- 1984-1989
-- Orlando Lind 24 R Starter 4 0 6 6 3 0 0 0 0 41.1 31 10 9 3 12 39 1 0 0 1.96 1.04 6.75 0.65 2.61 8.49 2.18 3.25 AAA -- 1983-1992
-- Stan Belinda 22 R Closer 1 4 32 0 0 0 32 28 13 38.2 32 13 10 1 25 33 4 0 1 2.33 1.47 7.45 0.23 5.82 7.68 3.03 1.32 MLB 1989-2000 1986-2000
-- Randy Tomlin 23 L Starter 2 2 5 5 1 0 0 0 0 32.0 18 6 3 0 6 31 0 0 1 0.84 0.75 5.06 0.00 1.69 8.72 1.69 5.17 MLB 1990-1994 1988-1997
-- Tim Conroy 29 L Starter 3 0 4 4 1 0 0 0 0 26.0 15 6 6 2 10 21 1 0 0 2.08 0.96 5.19 0.69 3.46 7.27 2.08 2.10 MLB 1978-1987 1978-1989
-- Willie Smith 21 R Reliever 3 0 12 0 0 0 12 6 0 18.1 11 5 5 1 10 21 0 0 3 2.45 1.15 5.40 0.49 4.91 10.31 2.45 2.10 MLB 1994-1994 1986-1998
-- Bill Sampen 26 R Starter 11 9 26 26 6 0 0 0 0 165.2 148 75 59 8 40 134 6 0 5 3.21 1.13 8.04 0.43 2.17 7.28 4.07 3.35 MLB 1990-1994 1985-1994
-- Mike York 24 R Starter 11 5 18 18 3 2 0 0 0 121.0 105 37 31 6 40 106 8 0 2 2.31 1.20 7.81 0.45 2.98 7.88 2.75 2.65 MLB 1990-1991 1983-1997
-- Keith Richardson 22 R Starter 8 10 21 21 3 1 0 0 0 117.2 131 63 60 15 39 96 6 0 9 4.59 1.44 10.02 1.15 2.98 7.34 4.82 2.46 AA -- 1987-1990
-- Ben Webb 21 R St/Rel 4 7 23 18 2 0 5 3 0 105.0 110 64 55 9 47 70 8 0 4 4.71 1.50 9.43 0.77 4.03 6.00 5.49 1.49 AA -- 1986-1992
-- Steven Adams 25 R Rel/St 8 2 28 12 4 1 16 5 0 102.2 109 48 45 6 22 45 2 0 1 3.94 1.28 9.56 0.53 1.93 3.94 4.21 2.05 AA -- 1984-1991
-- Totals (15 players) 24.0 -- -- 71 65 324 136 26 4 188 110 28 1,116.1 1063 512 425 75 369 862 52 0 43 3.43 1.28 8.57 0.60 2.97 6.95 4.13 2.34 MLB 1989-2000 1986-2000
Fielding Statistics
CSV*Reload page to restore grid
Grid Actions:
PREMIUM subscribers get additional grid functionality
Tips/tools for using data grids:

  • Manual Filter: Single-click a row to highlight in orange. Click FILTER ROWS button to show only those rows in the grid
  • Quick-Filter: Double-Click on a cell value to filter the grid on rows that have same value in same column. Click a statistic to view all values equal or higher
  • Select Rows: Single-click rows to select multiple rows for future action or visibility.
  • Hide Rows: Click the minus sign in the first column to hide the row in the grid.
  • Restore Rows: Once rows are filtered, click RESTORE ROWS to show all rows once again
  • Sort: Click a column in the first header row to sort data by values in that column. Click again to reverse the original sort. Some cells have custom sort keys that will sort them logically instead of alphanumerically.
  • Compare/Analyze: Click multiple rows for players of interest. In addition to filtering, you can quickly COMPARE player stats or use the MULTI-PLAYER STAT VIEWER to view multiple player cards on the same page.
  • Leaders: On stat grids. Top-10 ranked statistics are highlighted in gray. #1 rank is in light green. (PREMIUM setting)
  • Export to CSV: Click CSV to convert the full grid into a comma-delimeted display. From there, you can copy/paste to another application.
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Jeff Banister 24 c 85 0 0.0 550 29 7 3 586 579 0 0 0 .988 6.8 0 -- 61.2 83.3 1 MLB 1991-1991 1986-1993
Andy Hall 24 c 7 0 0.0 32 7 0 1 39 39 0 0 0 1.000 5.6 0 -- 5.0 100.0 3 AAA -- 1983-1991
Tim McKinley 24 c 57 0 0.0 313 22 5 1 340 335 0 0 0 .985 5.9 0 -- 41.0 100.0 2 AA -- 1987-1990
Totals (3 players) 24.0 c 149 0 0 895 58 12 5 965 953 0 0 0 .988 6.4 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Jeff Osborne 22 1b 9 0 0.0 66 3 1 6 70 69 0 0 0 .986 7.7 0 -- 6.5 47.4 4 AA -- 1986-1990
Ed Hartman 24 1b 60 0 0.0 442 36 8 37 486 478 0 0 0 .984 8.0 0 -- 43.2 88.2 1 AA -- 1986-1989
Orlando Merced 22 1b 52 0 0.0 413 28 8 36 449 441 0 0 0 .982 8.5 0 -- 37.4 54.7 2 MLB 1990-2003 1986-2003
Junior Vizcaino 24 1b 16 0 0.0 127 10 3 9 140 137 0 0 0 .979 8.6 0 -- 11.5 94.1 3 AA -- 1987-1990
Jeff Banister 24 1b 1 0 0.0 8 2 0 1 10 10 0 0 0 1.000 10.0 0 -- 0.7 1.0 5 MLB 1991-1991 1986-1993
Totals (5 players) 23.2 1b 138 0 0 1056 79 20 89 1155 1135 0 0 0 .983 8.2 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Kevin Burdick 25 2b 92 0 0.0 170 217 6 39 393 387 0 0 0 .985 4.2 0 -- 66.2 95.8 1 AAA -- 1986-1991
Terry Crowley 21 2b 30 0 0.0 45 70 3 11 118 115 0 0 0 .975 3.8 0 -- 21.6 100.0 2 AA -- 1986-1992
Pedro Perez 23 2b 16 0 0.0 22 42 1 9 65 64 0 0 0 .985 4.0 0 -- 11.5 19.3 3 AA -- 1985-1990
Totals (3 players) 23.0 2b 138 0 0 237 329 10 59 576 566 0 0 0 .983 4.1 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Tommy Shields 24 3b 101 0 0.0 70 187 19 12 276 257 0 0 0 .931 2.5 0 -- 72.7 82.1 1 MLB 1993-1993 1983-1994
Orlando Merced 22 3b 4 0 0.0 2 4 1 0 7 6 0 0 0 .857 1.5 0 -- 2.9 4.2 4 MLB 1990-2003 1986-2003
Pedro Perez 23 3b 17 0 0.0 9 21 2 3 32 30 0 0 0 .938 1.8 0 -- 12.2 20.5 2 AA -- 1985-1990
Rico Rossy 25 3b 16 0 0.0 10 24 1 2 35 34 0 0 0 .971 2.1 0 -- 11.5 20.5 3 MLB 1991-1998 1983-1999
Totals (4 players) 23.5 3b 138 0 0 91 236 23 17 350 327 0 0 0 .934 2.4 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Rico Rossy 25 ss 62 0 0.0 97 151 11 31 259 248 0 0 0 .958 4.0 0 -- 44.6 79.5 1 MLB 1991-1998 1983-1999
Carlos Garcia 21 ss 54 0 0.0 84 131 7 23 222 215 0 0 0 .968 4.0 0 -- 38.8 100.0 2 MLB 1990-1999 1987-2001
Tommy Shields 24 ss 20 0 0.0 33 41 3 9 77 74 0 0 0 .961 3.7 0 -- 14.4 16.3 3 MLB 1993-1993 1983-1994
Pedro Perez 23 ss 2 0 0.0 4 5 1 1 10 9 0 0 0 .900 4.5 0 -- 1.4 2.4 4 AA -- 1985-1990
Bernardo Tatis 27 ss 1 0 0.0 1 1 0 1 2 2 0 0 0 1.000 2.0 0 -- 0.7 5.3 5 AAA -- 1981-1991
Totals (5 players) 24.0 ss 139 0 0 219 329 22 65 570 548 0 0 0 .961 3.9 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Orlando Merced 22 of 13 0 0.0 20 0 1 0 21 20 0 0 0 .952 1.5 0 -- 9.4 13.7 9 MLB 1990-2003 1986-2003
Wes Chamberlain 23 of 120 0 0.0 205 14 15 0 234 219 0 0 0 .936 1.8 0 -- 86.3 93.0 1 MLB 1990-1995 1987-2004
Ed Yacopino 23 of 90 0 0.0 173 7 4 1 184 180 0 0 0 .978 2.0 0 -- 64.7 95.7 2 AAA -- 1986-1993
Julio Peguero 20 of 71 0 0.0 163 6 2 1 171 169 0 0 0 .988 2.4 0 -- 51.1 93.4 3 MLB 1992-1992 1987-2000
Tony Chance 24 of 66 0 0.0 135 8 4 1 147 143 0 0 0 .973 2.2 0 -- 47.5 93.0 4 AAA -- 1983-2002
Moises Alou 22 of 52 0 0.0 89 1 2 0 92 90 0 0 0 .978 1.7 0 -- 37.4 96.3 5 MLB 1990-2008 1986-2008
Tony Longmire 20 of 31 0 0.0 62 1 2 0 65 63 0 0 0 .969 2.0 0 -- 22.3 83.8 6 MLB 1993-1995 1986-1999
Bernardo Tatis 27 of 16 0 0.0 36 1 0 0 37 37 0 0 0 1.000 2.3 0 -- 11.5 84.2 7 AAA -- 1981-1991
Jeff Cook 23 of 16 0 0.0 25 1 1 0 27 26 0 0 0 .963 1.6 0 -- 11.5 88.9 7 AAA -- 1985-1998
Jeff Osborne 22 of 1 0 0.0 3 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 1.000 3.0 0 -- 0.7 5.3 10 AA -- 1986-1990
Totals (10 players) 22.6 of 476 0 0 911 39 31 3 981 950 0 0 0 .968 2.0 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Scott Ruskin 26 p 12 0 0.0 3 12 1 0 16 15 0 0 0 .938 1.3 0 -- 8.6 100.0 11 MLB 1990-1993 1982-1993
Willie Smith 21 p 12 0 0.0 2 2 0 0 4 4 0 0 0 1.000 0.3 0 -- 8.6 100.0 11 MLB 1994-1994 1986-1998
Orlando Lind 24 p 6 0 0.0 4 8 0 0 12 12 0 0 0 1.000 2.0 0 -- 4.3 100.0 13 AAA -- 1983-1992
Rob Russell 24 p 44 0 0.0 5 8 0 0 13 13 0 0 0 1.000 0.3 0 -- 31.7 100.0 1 AA -- 1984-1989
Jim Tracy 23 p 44 0 0.0 5 11 3 0 19 16 0 0 0 .842 0.4 0 -- 31.7 100.0 1 AAA -- 1985-1993
Randy Tomlin 23 p 5 0 0.0 4 3 0 1 7 7 0 0 0 1.000 1.4 0 -- 3.6 100.0 14 MLB 1990-1994 1988-1997
Stan Belinda 22 p 32 0 0.0 3 6 0 0 9 9 0 0 0 1.000 0.3 0 -- 23.0 100.0 3 MLB 1989-2000 1986-2000
Steven Adams 25 p 28 0 0.0 5 27 1 3 33 32 0 0 0 .970 1.1 0 -- 20.1 100.0 4 AA -- 1984-1991
Tim Conroy 29 p 4 0 0.0 1 3 0 0 4 4 0 0 0 1.000 1.0 0 -- 2.9 100.0 15 MLB 1978-1987 1978-1989
Bill Sampen 26 p 26 0 0.0 8 17 2 3 27 25 0 0 0 .926 1.0 0 -- 18.7 100.0 5 MLB 1990-1994 1985-1994
Peter Murphy 24 p 26 0 0.0 6 11 5 0 22 17 0 0 0 .773 0.7 0 -- 18.7 100.0 5 AA -- 1986-1991
Larry Melton 26 p 23 0 0.0 6 8 2 3 16 14 0 0 0 .875 0.6 0 -- 16.5 100.0 7 AAA -- 1985-1989
Ben Webb 21 p 23 0 0.0 4 12 2 1 18 16 0 0 0 .889 0.7 0 -- 16.5 100.0 7 AA -- 1986-1992
Keith Richardson 22 p 21 0 0.0 6 13 1 3 20 19 0 0 0 .950 0.9 0 -- 15.1 100.0 9 AA -- 1987-1990
Mike York 24 p 18 0 0.0 11 13 2 0 26 24 0 0 0 .923 1.3 0 -- 12.9 100.0 10 MLB 1990-1991 1983-1997
Totals (15 players) 24.0 p 324 0 0 73 154 19 14 246 227 0 0 0 .923 0.7 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- --